Stephen of Blois
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Stephen (c. 1092/6 – 25 October 1154), often referred to as Stephen of Blois (Old French: Estienne de Blois), was a grandson of William the Conqueror. He was King of England from 1135 to his death, and also the Count of Boulogne in right of his wife. Stephen's reign was marked by the Anarchy, a civil war with his cousin and rival, the Empress Matilda. He was succeeded by Matilda's son, Henry II, the first of the Angevin kings.
Stephen was born in the County of Blois in middle France; his father, Count Stephen-Henry, died while Stephen was still young, and he was brought up by his mother, Adela. Placed into the court of his uncle, Henry I, Stephen rose in prominence and was granted extensive lands. Stephen married Matilda of Boulogne, inheriting additional estates in Kent and Boulogne that made the couple one of the wealthiest in England. Stephen narrowly escaped drowning with Henry I's son, William Adelin, in the sinking of the White Ship in 1120; William's death left the succession of the English throne open to challenge. When Henry I died in 1135, Stephen quickly crossed the English Channel and with the help of his brother Henry of Blois, a powerful ecclesiastic, took the throne, arguing that the preservation of order across the kingdom took priority over his earlier oaths to support the claim of Henry I's daughter, the Empress Matilda.
The early years of Stephen's reign were largely successful, despite a series of attacks on his possessions in England and Normandy from David I of Scotland, Welsh rebels, and the Empress Matilda's husband, Geoffrey of Anjou. In 1138 the Empress's half-brother Robert of Gloucester rebelled against Stephen, threatening civil war. Together with his close advisor, Waleran de Beaumont, Stephen took firm steps to defend his rule, including arresting a powerful family of bishops. When the Empress and Robert invaded in 1139, however, Stephen was unable to crush the revolt rapidly, which took hold in the south-west of England. Captured at the battle of Lincoln in 1141, Stephen was abandoned by many of his followers and lost control of Normandy. Stephen was freed only after his wife and William of Ypres, one of his military commanders, captured Robert at the Rout of Winchester, but the war dragged on for many years with neither side able to win an advantage.
Stephen became increasingly concerned with ensuring that his son Eustace would inherit his throne after him. The king attempted to convince the Church to agree to crown Eustace to reinforce his claim; Pope Eugene III refused, and Stephen found himself in a sequence of increasingly bitter arguments with his senior clergy. In 1153 the Empress's son, Henry FitzEmpress, invaded England and built an alliance of powerful regional barons to support his claim for the throne. The two armies met at Wallingford, but neither side's barons were keen to fight another pitched battle. Stephen began to examine a negotiated peace, a process hastened by the sudden death of Eustace. Later in the year Stephen and Henry agreed to the Treaty of Winchester, in which Stephen recognised Henry as his heir in exchange for peace, passing over William, Stephen's second son. Stephen died the following year. Modern historians have extensively debated the extent to which Stephen's personality, external events, or the weaknesses in the Norman state contributed to this prolonged period of civil war.

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Stephen, King of England - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Stephen (c. 1092/6 – 25 October 1154), often referred to as Stephen of Blois (Old French: Estienne de Blois), was a grandson of William the Conqueror. He was ...
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stephen,_King_of_England
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Stefan, greve av Blois - Wikipedia
1045, død 19. mai 1102), greve av Blois og greve av Chartres, var sønnen til Teobald ... Davis, R. H. C. King Stephen 1135-1154 Third Edition London: Longman ...
no.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stefan,_greve_av_Blois
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BBC - History - King Stephen
Stephen was born in around 1097 in Blois, France, the son of the Count of Blois and Adela, daughter of William the Conqueror. He was sent to England to be ...
www.bbc.co.uk/history/historic_figures/stephen_king.shtml
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Stephen (king of England) -- Encyclopedia Britannica
... the throne by usurpation but failed to consolidate his power during the ensuing civil strife. Stephen was the third son of Stephen, Count of Blois and Chartres,...
www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/565388/Stephen
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King Stephen
King Stephen - Kings and Queens from Alfred the Great to Elizabeth II. ... Parents: Stephen, Count of Blois, and Adela (daughter of William I) Relation to ...
www.britroyals.com/kings.asp?id=stephen
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Stephen of Blois Biography - Facts, Birthday, Life Story - Biography ...
For more on Stephen of Blois, the king of England who fought a 15-year civil war to defend his throne, head to Biography.com.
www.biography.com/people/stephen-of-blois-9493736
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Stephen and Matilda: Where History Happened | History Extra
18 Feb 2010 ... Henry's nephew, Stephen of Blois, felt that he had a good claim to the throne. When Henry died (probably from dysentery) in 1135, Stephen ...
www.historyextra.com/feature/stephen-and-matilda-where-history-happened
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Stephen (of Blois, king of England 1135-1154) - TimeRef - Medieval ...
Stephen's father was Stephen, Count of Blois. The Count was killed on Crusade and Stephen was looked after by his uncle, Henry I, the king of England.
www.timeref.com/hpr211.htm
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Romantic Couples: King Stephen & Matilda of Boulogne
Born around 1096, the son of Adela (daughter of William the Conqueror) and Stephen, Count of Blois, he was sent to his Uncle Henry's (King Henry I) court in ...
www.triviumpublishing.com/articles/romanticcouples1.html
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Stephen, grandson of William the Conqueror - Britannia.com
Stephen was the grandson of William the Conqueror and about half-dozen years ... Henry of Blois, Bishop of Winchester, and gathered support from the barons.
www.britannia.com/history/monarchs/mon25.html
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Stephen of Blois i vitenskapen
2 - THE BEAUMONT TWINS AND STEPHEN OF BLOIS - University ...
THE DEFENCE OF NORMANDY, 1136–8. Henry I's death threw the great magnates into confusion. We have records of several meetings in Normandy that  ...
Stephen, Count of Blois - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
For the King of England called "Stephen of Blois", see Stephen of England. ... God's war: a new history of the Crusades, (Harvard University Press, 2006), 87.
Stephen, Count of Blois and Chartres: Letter to his wife, Adele
Stephen, Count of Blois and Chartres Letter to his wife, ... (Philadelphia: Department of History, University of Pennsylvania, 1894) vol. 1, no. 4, 5-8. Hanover ...
Steve Blois profiles | LinkedIn
View the profiles of professionals named Steve Blois on LinkedIn. ... Six Sigma, Air Canada, The University of Western, Brooks School, North Andover, MA ...
BBC - History - King Stephen
Stephen was born in around 1097 in Blois, France, the son of the Count of Blois and Adela, daughter of William the Conqueror. He was sent to England to be ...
Stephen (of Blois, king of England 1135-1154) - TimeRef - Medieval ...
Stephen's father was Stephen, Count of Blois. The Count was killed on Crusade and Stephen was looked after by his uncle, Henry I, the king of England.
[PDF]Miljø 2015 Fageksperter mai 2013
Queensland University of Technology. Australia .... National School of Higher studies in Nature and Landscape Architecture- Blois. Frankrike ... Stephan Hopper.
IMC Leeds 2013 - Syddansk Universitet
14 Feb 2013 ... You are here : University of Southern Denmark About SDU Departments and ... Paper 118-c, Reynald of Chatillion, Peter of Blois, and the Passio Raginaldi ... Paper 1607-b, Stephen of Antioch's Astronomical Work: The Liber ...
Shauna L Blois - ResearchGate
Researcher » Shauna L Blois, University of Guelph, Department of Clinical Studies, Canada, Transfusion Medicine and Hematology.
[PDF]PDF hosted at the Radboud Repository of the Radboud University ...
LUKAS DE BLOIS. PAUL ERDKAMP. OLIVIER HEKSTER. GERDA DE KLEIJN. STEPHAN MOLS. ^. J.C. GIEBEN, PUBLISHER. AMSTERDAM 2003 ...
Bøker om begrepet Stephen of Blois
Crusaders and Crusading in the Twelfth Century
Crusaders and Crusading in the Twelfth Century
Giles Constable, 2008
Bourges 1863-71), II, 298-9; on Stephen of Blois, James Brundage, 'An Errant Crusader: Stephen of Blois', Traditio 16 (1960), 380-95, and the genealogical chart in Ralph H. C. Davis, King Stephen, 1 135- 1 1 54 (London 1967), showing  ...
The First Crusade and the Idea of Crusading
The First Crusade and the Idea of Crusading
Jonathan Riley-Smith, Jonathan Simon Christopher Riley-Smith, 1991
From the winter of 1096-7 onwards crusaders were drifting back to western Europe, Obloquy was heaped on the heads of the early homecomers, like Emich of Leiningen, who had been turned back in the Balkans, Stephen of Blois, who had ...
St. William of York
St. William of York
Christopher Norton, 2006
No such sister of the king is recorded, but Poole suggested that she was an illegitimate daughter of Count Stephen of Blois and therefore a half- sister of King Stephen.13 However, as Bilson had already pointed out, this is almost impossible on ...
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Stephen of Blois
Stephen, King of England - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stephen,_King_of_England
Stephen, Count of Blois - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stephen,_Count_of_Blois
Stephen of Blois - Latin States Blog (Andrew)
I see some of you actually still read this.The below post, take it as an amplification of my feelings. Yes, I know it's wrong and trust me I feel that way and I'll admit to being a twat posting that below.
latinandrew.blogspot.com/
Tag Archives: King Stephen of Blois
Where the Middle Ages Begin
www.medievalists.net/tag/king-stephen-of-blois/
Blois | Define Blois at Dictionary.com
Blois definition, a city in and the capital of Loire-et-Cher, in central France, on the Loire River: historic castle. See more.
dictionary.reference.com/browse/blois
Kody Blois
McNeil, Grits still have work to do in order to improve Nova Scotia’s Economy Premier Stephen McNeil addresses the Halifax Chamber of Commerce following the release of the Ivany Report on building a new economy. The speech intended to be a rallying cry for private sector to take initiative was well received with over 750 in attendance. Despite onus for private sector involvement, provincial government has its own responsibilities in helping turning around Nova Scotia’s economy With the Ivany report released last week plenty of commentary has emerged regarding the document which gives recommendations of how to kick-start a lagging economy amid an uncertain and gloomy future.
kodyblois.blogspot.com/
Matilda of Boulogne, Queen of England | Saints, Sisters, and Sluts
Posted on July 30, 2012 by Susan Abernethy.
saintssistersandsluts.com/matilda-of-boulogne/
English Historical Fiction Authors: Monarchy~ The Normans: Stephen and Matilda
by Debra BrownFollowing the early death of the only legitimate son of Henry I, William, few of the English and Norman barons were prepared to stand by their oath to him to support his daughter's claim to the throne. Matilda was, after all, a woman, and was said to have been arrogant and unpopular.
englishhistoryauthors.blogspot.com/2012/03/monarchy-normans-stephen-and-matilda.html
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